Monday, August 3, 2020

The Symptoms and Risks of Television Addiction

The Symptoms and Risks of Television Addiction Addiction Addictive Behaviors Print The Symptoms and Risks of Television Addiction By Elizabeth Hartney, BSc., MSc., MA, PhD Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD is a psychologist, professor, and Director of the Centre for Health Leadership and Research at Royal Roads University, Canada. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Hartney, BSc., MSc., MA, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on October 24, 2019 Alex Gumerov/Getty Images More in Addiction Addictive Behaviors Caffeine Internet Shopping Sex Alcohol Use Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery Television addiction has been conceptualized and discussed since the 1970s, so it pre-dated some of the behavioral addictions that have since overtaken it in terms of scientific research and widespread acceptance, such as internet addiction.??  Although early research into TV addiction was limited, the concept of TV addiction was relatively well accepted by parents, educators, and journalists,?? as television watching became more common, particularly among children.  Parents have intuitively known and discussed the need to monitor and manage their kids screen time, long before the rise of the internet. More recent surveys have shown that there is a growing trend of binge-watching television as well as widespread public acceptance that television is addictive.?? Symptoms When TV addiction was studied in the 1970s, it was described as paralleling five of the seven DSM criteria used for diagnosing substance dependence.??  People who were addicted to television spent  large amounts of their time watching it; they watched TV longer or more often than they intended; they made repeated unsuccessful efforts to cut down their TV watching; they withdrew from or gave up important social, family, or occupational activities in order to watch television; and they reported withdrawal-like symptoms of subjective discomfort when deprived of TV.?? Studies conducted with self-identified TV addicts have shown that those considering themselves addicted to television were more generally unhappy, anxious, and withdrawn than other people who watch television, and used television watching to distract themselves from negative moods, worries and fears, and from boredom.?? They may be somewhat more likely to be solitary, hostile, and lacking the capacity for or interest in social connections with others, although it is unclear whether there is a causal link between these personality characteristics and addiction. Additionally, there is a growing popular trend toward binge-watching television in our culture, which may be exacerbating television addiction.?? Other characteristics that have been associated with self-identified TV addiction are binge-watching, susceptibility  to boredom, and the use of TV to fill time. The TV is used  as a way to avoid rather than seek out stimulation. In addition, people who become addicted to TV tend to have poor attentional control, guilt, and are prone to daydreams involving fear of failure. Risks Research has revealed disturbing evidence that excessive TV watching is associated with a shorter lifespan.??  Those in the highest risk category watched an average of 6 hours of television a day and had a lifespan nearly 5 years shorter than people who did not watch TV. But does TV itself cause a shorter lifespan? Perhaps not. The study’s authors have stated that the results may be caused by something else associated with excessive TV watching, such as overeating, lack of exercise, or depression.?? Indeed, there are several addictive behaviors that lend themselves to hours of TV watching. Marijuana addiction and heroin addiction both tend to lead to many hours of sitting around doing nothing.?? People with chronic pain who are hooked on painkillers are often limited in their mobility so can’t get out and about. And while the focus of research into shopping addiction tends to be retail stores and online shopping, it may neglect one of the most compulsive scenarios for the shopaholic â€" the shopping channel.?? TV may well be addictive, along with other forms of media, such as video game addiction, internet addiction, cybersex, and even smartphone addiction. And while it is quite possible that TV itself may be addictive, it seems likely that it co-exists with many other addictions that feed off the isolation that is felt by people with numerous other behavioral addictions and substance addictions.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

A Study On Skipper, A Hunting Dog - 1468 Words

Skipper is a four year old neutered male American foxhound. He weighs 55 pounds and is considered a 3 of 5 on the body condition score (BCS) scale. His owner is preparing to take him on a two week hunting trip and wants to know if he should change Skip s feeding program. During the trip Skipper will be working intensely for six to eight hours each day. His current food contains 3.0 Kcal ME/g, 22% protein, and 15% fat. The following is a case study on Skipper, a hunting dog. His body weight is ideal for his age and lifestyle, however, an increase in strenuous activity may require a higher caloric intake during the time frame of the activity. â€Å"Energy dense foods are classified as the amount of energy or calories per gram of food.†¦show more content†¦Skipper is a four year old neutered male canine American Fox hound standing 24 inches tall at the shoulder, having a short, single, hard, black with brown and tan coat and an ideal weight of 55 pounds with a body condition score of a 3 on a scale of 5. This is indicative by slight pressure to the ribs and spine with no visual protrusion. Muscle tone is apparent for an active dog, in addition to having a visible hourglass shape when viewed from above and a concave tuck of the abdomen when viewed from the side (Case, Daristotle, Hayek, Raasch, 2011, p. 240). Skipper leads an active life style, however, during the hunting season, Skipper’s owner takes him out a few weeks at a time where there is a greater energy expenditure compared to the rest of the year. Throughout the year, the owner conditions Skipper for a few days out of the month to simulate the upcoming hunting trip. At this time, the owner only supplements Skipper’s caloric intake with more energy dense treats and on occasion, an increase in protein intake. Since this is the longest time Skipper will be working, in comparison to the other shorter hunting trips, the owner would like to know what he can do to maintain Skippe r’s weight and peak performance during high levels of intensity. Skipper comes from a hardy breed and the rest of the physical exam is unremarkable. Plan According to Animals Adda, it is recommended that the nutritional food

Monday, May 11, 2020

Gambling Essay - 824 Words

Gambling Gambling is defined as risking money or something of value on the outcome of an event involving chance when probability of winning or losing is less than certain.[i] Over the past ten years, Ontario has undergone a dramatic change in gambling attitudes. Since the legalization of gambling in Ontario in 1994, there has been an explosion of gambling opportunities for the public. From commercial casinos to lottery tickets to off-track betting, it is easier to gamble today than ever before. While the government promotes the gambling industry to supplement tax revenues, it has not allocated†¦show more content†¦Research suggests that for every problem gambler there are 10 to 17 people around him that will be negatively affected.[iv] Excessive spending on gambling can have serious consequences for the gamblers family. For the most part, bills and necessary expenses are not paid and the burden will fall onto the spouse or children.[v] There can also be a negative impact on the gamblers work environment. If the gambler is not focused or absent from work, he may be fired which could add to his financial difficulty that started with his gambling habit. Crime is sometimes used to support gambling habits after bank accounts are exhausted. Gambling is also associated with health problems. Approximately one in every four moderate to severe gamblers is seeing a doctor for stress related problems and approximately one in three gamblers have habitual feelings of depression.[vi] Many gamblers are also dealing with existing illnesses such as cancer, HIV, Parkinsons disease and chronic pain. They are often using gambling as an outlet for their pain and suffering. Another problem that gamblers develop is poor sleep and nutrition habits. They are often too busy to deal with their personal needs and allow their health to waste away. The compulsive gambler is costing anShow MoreRelatedGambling : Illegal Gambling And Commercial Gambling860 Words   |  4 PagesGambling In 2006, the Pew Research Center did many studies on the average American and their gambling habits. Of these studies, â€Å"67% of the people surveyed had gambled in the past year† (â€Å"Supply and Demand†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ). â€Å"Gambling is the act of risking something of value on the outcome of an event in hopes of gain†(Schwartz). Gambling has become extremely popular and so complex throughout the thousands of years it has been evolving. There are two different types of gambling, social gambling and commercialRead MoreGambling No Matter The Stake Gambling Essay1555 Words   |  7 Pagesa loser, this being very prevalent in gambling no matter the stake. Gambling regulations exist all over the country as there is a basis of set laws that are put forth by the government, such as the ability to not buy a lottery ticket until the age of 18 and not being able to fully access a casino until the age of 21. On the topic of individual state, states have the power to contro l who gambles and how by setting forth regulations on the topic of gambling, such as recent applications that involveRead MoreGambling and Sports1027 Words   |  5 PagesShould Sports Gambling Be Legalized? Gambling is a common practice throughout human history, one that appeals to the individual’s desire for gain and offers the thrill of risk or uncertainty. Sports gambling is the â€Å"wagering of money or other items of value on the outcome of a sporting event, dependent either wholly or in part on chance† (Thompson, 2008, p. 1). Sports gambling generates billions of dollars annually, with large events like the Super Bowl or World Series alone able toRead More Gambling Essay1614 Words   |  7 Pages Gambling, while it lowers taxes and creates jobs, it also causes addicts to lose money and therefore creates a higher crime rate.A Quick History of Gambling.Gambling was a popular pastime in North America long before there was ever a United States. Playing cards and dice were brought over by both the British and the Dutch. By the end of the 17th century, just about every countryseat in colonial America had a lottery wheel. Cockfighting flourished thoughout the cou ntries, especially in the SouthRead More gambling Essay858 Words   |  4 Pagesincredible growth in the gambling industry. Twenty years ago if a person wanted to gamble they had to go to Nevada. Nowadays, there are only six states in which no form of legalized gambling exists. Proponents of the gambling industry feel that this growth is a good thing a nd that it is helping the national economy. However, there are many opponents that feel that gambling is hurting families and society. Indeed, there needs to be a limit to the growth of the gambling industry, although, thisRead MoreWhy Gambling Is The Modern Day Gambling2365 Words   |  10 PagesKingsley Forrester 02/27/15 C 100 Paper Riverboat Gambling The crisp slicing of cards, shimmering dresses, sharp suits, dealers shouting, clouds of smoke from cigarettes, and coins spitting out from glowing slot machines is the modern day gambling that we know today. Thinking of gambling in America has always brought attention to prospering cities like Las Vegas or Atlantic City. Gambling unfortunately has created a dark subculture that surrounds gaming such as: crime, prostitution, andRead MoreGambling Essay1011 Words   |  5 Pagesthe bar scene, individuals view gambling as a relaxing and entertaining past time. However, we recently encountered an article by Pathlights entitled â€Å"The Case Against Gambling†. Apparently what we thought was a fun night out, is causing otherwise good citizens to perish under the gambling system. Are we looking at gambling the wrong way? In Gambling There Are No Winners In the article by Pathlights it is made quite clear the major claim is that gambling is impoverishing America. We areRead MoreGambling Addiction : Illegal Gambling2199 Words   |  9 PagesGambling Addiction Walking into the flashing lights, the happy people and seeing people win; are all the start of a bad beginning. Gamblers have a different mindset them some and they need help most of the time. The worse thing for a person just starting out is to see people win because they believe they are going to do the same thing and even more. That is almost never how it turns out; it usually starts with betting small, but gamblers always raise their bets over time even if they are winningRead MoreLegalized Gambling2290 Words   |  10 PagesEconomic Impacts of Legalized Gambling Class # Title By Charles Conner Baltimore, Maryland December 6, 2005 Professor: Dr. Ira Sohn The Economic Impacts of Legalized Gambling Introduction The effect of gambling on the standard of living will be pronounced if the gambling activity is regressive, meaning that the rate of participation (as a percentage of income) declines as people earn higher incomes. In other words, if most gamblers are poor, then gambling is more likely to affectRead MoreEffects of Gambling1138 Words   |  5 PagesTHE EFFECTS OF GAMBLING Most people with gambling problems say they lost control over how much time and money they spend gambling. Meanwhile, they ignored other responsibilities. For them, gambling is an activity that are important to them. Those who gamble excessively often bring problems for the one they love. The effects of gambling can be classified into individuals, family and the society. Each of them had different aspect. With the problems that been brought by those

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Victor Frankenstein Or His Creature English Literature Essay Free Essays

Frankenstein besides known as the â€Å" Modern Prometheus † a celebrated Gothic novel, foremost published in 1818 by Mary Shelley, born august 30th 1797 and married at 16 to the well known poet: Percy Bysshe Shelley, who published the verse form ; â€Å" Prometheus † in July 1816. A The novel is set around the cultural and historical events that took topographic point during the late 18th and early nineteenth century. Shelley was reflecting on the alterations that she had experienced in her ain life. We will write a custom essay sample on Victor Frankenstein Or His Creature English Literature Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now At the clip Europe was traveling through great alteration: the industrial revolution, civil war, progresss in scientific discipline and doctrine ; a period known as the Romantic Movement. The fresh uses an embedded narrative manner ; it is narrated by three characters. A great adventurer Captain Robert Walton narrates the narrative through letters to his sister: Margaret Saville, who lives back in England. Victor Frankenstein a Swiss scientist who retells the events of his work, where he created a animal from lifeless organic structure parts and in conclusion, the animal, who so seeks retaliation from him after being abandoned and rejected by society. In this essay, I will be discoursing the different techniques that Shelley uses to construct up the reader ‘s understanding for the animal every bit good as understanding for Frankenstein. A Main Body: First, Shelley creates understanding for the animal throughout the fresh utilizing techniques such as linguistic communication, imagination and strategic repeat of the cardinal descriptions of its actions, which largely represent its agony. She shows the reader that the monster has good grounds to be pitied, by disregarding its offenses. A At the beginning of the 5th chapter, when the monster is being created Shelley describes the ambiance as â€Å" a drab dark † making understanding through the usage of â€Å" Hapless false belief † . This evokes different thoughts for the reader proposing that the animal may non be who Frankenstein is anticipating him to be. It is subsequently used in the 16th chapter to mirror the animal ‘s temper: â€Å" nature decayed around me and the Sun became heatless. â€Å" A Shelley uses metaphors: â€Å" conditions and Nature † to bode the coming events. The reader is made to believe that this is true, based on Frankenstein ‘s colored point of position: â€Å" I saw a dull yellow oculus of the animal unfastened † and â€Å" How can I depict my emotions at this calamity†¦ the wretch. Victor is so horrified at what he has created that he decides to run off from taking duty, he describes his work as a waste of â€Å" remainder † and â€Å" wellness † filled with such sorrows: â€Å" but now that I had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and dyspneic horror and disgust filled my bosom. † The usage of negative linguistic communication, gives an indicant to the reader that, the so called: â€Å" monster † is really really harmful and should be feared, but at the same clip creates sympathy for its Godhead as his dream has formed a incubus. A Additionally, in the ten percent chapter the reader is introduced to the character of the animal during its confrontation with Victor ; responding to the horror of what he has created he vilifies the monster stating: â€Å" Devil†¦ be gone despicable insect! Or instead stay, that I may tread you to dust! † A Here, although the reader can understand how Frankenstein feels, it is clear that his reaction is inappropriate ; after all he created the animal and should take duty for his actions. The animal bearing no maliciousness aforethought answers merely by saying: â€Å" I expected this response. † Deriving the readers sympathy through its presentation of composure, it shows that no affair how it has been treated by humanity it can still demo the better traits of humanity. A This is emphasised strongly in the undermentioned quotation mark: â€Å" All work forces hate the wretched ; how so, must I be hated, who am suffering beyond all living things! Yet you, my Godhead, detest and reject me, thy animal, to whom thou art edge by ties merely dissolvable by the obliteration of one of us. † Here the animal backs up his statement through the usage of authorization, demoing how confident he is and by saying: â€Å" You purpose to kill me. How daring you sport therefore with life? Make your responsibility towards me, and I will make mine towards you and the remainder of world. If you comply I will go forth them and you at peace ; but if you refuse, I will gorge the trap of decease, until it be satiated with the blood of your staying friends. † The animal is demoing the reader his intelligence by utilizing interesting but complex words: â€Å" oversupply † and â€Å" Maw † which besides creates understanding because it shows that has h ad to larn from his experiences as his Godhead ne’er bothered to learn him anything. Furthermore, understanding is created for the monster throughout chapters eleven to sixteen when the monster is re- stating his experiences to master. In these few chapters the reader gets an penetration of the enduring the animal has endured. The animal negotiations about being deserted by humanity, giving a glance of what has motivated his offenses: † I am an unfortunate and abandoned animal, I look around and I have no relation or friend upon Earth. These good-humored people to whom I go have ne’er seen me and cognize little of me. I am full of frights, for if I fail at that place, I am an castaway in the universe forever. â€Å" The usage of strong affectional linguistic communication emphasises the animal ‘s feelings, he longs to be accepted by humanity, but everyplace he goes no human being seems to understand him. The animal begins to gain this that humans do non understand him, so he turns to nature for comfort: â€Å" The desert mountains and drab glaciers are my safety†¦ these black skied I hail, for they are kinder to me than your fellow existences. If the battalion of world knew of my being, they would make as you do, and arm themselves to for my devastation. Shall I non so detest them who abhor me? I will maintain no footings with my enemies. I am suffering, and they shall portion my misery. † A Here the reader sees two sides to the monster, they start to see hate fury and choler which shows that the animal does hold feelings and has good grounds for perpetrating the offenses ; he has tried to derive society ‘s credence and has failed so the lone option in his point of position is to take â€Å" retaliation † . In chapter 13, the monster erupts with choler and self-pity, as he inquiries his being: â€Å" but where were my friends and dealingss? no male parent had watched my infant yearss, no female parent had blessed me with smilings and caresses. † The subjects of friendly relationship and loneliness represent the animals ‘ bosom desires making understanding ; he longs to be loved and accepted by his Godhead, like a female parent and male parent would make for their kid. In contrast to this, the animal seeks a comrade ; person that can understand and tie in with him: â€Å" ‘I am entirely and suffering: adult male will non tie in with me ; but one as deformed and atrocious as myself would non deny herself to me. My comrade must be of the same species and have the same defects. This being you must make. † Here the animal tries to maintain the peace between himself and Frankenstein by giving him an option between life and decease for both himself and his friends and household, demoing how considerate a being he is despite how Frankenstein has treated him. In chapter 20 four in Walton ‘s last missive, the recount of the monster ‘s words spoken over Victor ‘s organic structure: â€Å" I, the suffering and the abandoned, am an abortion, to be spurned at, and kicked, and trampled on. † Although this quotation mark may arouse the thought of abortion for the monster, who is unwanted and abandoned by his Godhead, it besides the issue that Frankenstein ‘s decease was most evidently caused by the animals pick of actions. The reader may get down inquiry: â€Å" did master deserve to decease this manner? † Additionally, the reader besides Sympathises the animal ‘s Godhead â€Å" master Frankenstein † Through the usage of powerful affectional linguistic communication such as: ‘parched with horror ‘ , ‘shuddering and torment ‘ , ‘anguish ‘ , ‘the agonising enduring that I endured ‘ , ‘my ravings aˆÂ ¦ were atrocious ‘ , ‘the monster by whom I was tormented ‘ and ‘screamed aloud with torment and terror’.A The reader begins to understand that Frankenstein ‘s looks of choler and hatred towards the monster are down to his experience of mental and physical unwellness. A In off, like â€Å" Prometheus † master stole the thought of creative activity from God and used it for his ain unadvised intents and is now get downing to endure the effects. In chapter five, after master has created the animal the reader sympathises on the fact that Frankenstein ‘s dream has now vanished before him: â€Å" For this I had deprived myself of remainder and wellness. I had desired it with an ardor that far exceeded moderateness ; but now that I had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and dyspneic horror and disgust filled my bosom. † Victor starts to demo marks of hurt ; mentally and physically, he falls into unwellness directly after his creative activity, bespeaking to the reader that non merely has the state of affairs it destroyed his dream, but it has besides began to destruct his wellness. A Looking back at one of Walton ‘s letters: â€Å" two † , Mary foreshadows the state of affairs Walton is sing to that of Victor: â€Å" I have no friend, Margaret: when cubic decimeter am glowing with the enthusiasm of success, there will be none to take part my joy ; if I am assailed by letdown, no 1 will endeavor to prolong me in dejection. † Associating the two together, the reader is made to sympathize with master, based on the fact that he pushed away all his friends and household to concentrate on his work. Still sing nil, but horror and letdown master narrates: A † Mingled with this horror, I felt the resentment of letdown ; dreamns that had been my nutrient and pleasant remainder for so long a infinite were now become a snake pit to me ; and the alteration was so rapid, the overthrow so complete! † the usage of strong negative feelings shows the reader how despairing Frankenstein feels about get awaying his letdowns ; he merely wants to bury everything but the disappointment supports stalking him. The animal ‘s statement adds on to his hurt: â€Å" Fix! Your labors merely begin. Wrap yourself in pelts and supply nutrient, for we shall shortly come in upon a journey where your agonies will fulfill my everlasting hatred. † A Sympathy is created in this quotation mark, as the animal is given a powerful speaking voice that shows that Frankenstein has no say in the state of affairs, he is being treated as a slave: A â€Å" Slave, I before reasoned with you, but you have proven yourself unworthy of my superciliousness. Remember that I have power ; you believe yourself suffering, but I can do you so wretched that the visible radiation of twenty-four hours will be hateful to you. You are my Godhead, but I am your maestro ; obey! † A The usage of linguistic communication, the repeat of words such as, â€Å" wretched † and â€Å" suffering † show the reader that the tabular arraies have now turned and Frankenstein is left with nil. Last, in chapter 10, Frankenstein is so overwhelmed by his experience that he begins to reflect on the state of affairs, by oppugning the intent of his life in the undermentioned citation: â€Å" We rest ; a dream has power to toxicant slumber. We rise ; one wand’ring idea pollutes the twenty-four hours. We feel, conceive or ground ; laugh or weep, Embrace fond suffering, or project our attentions off ; It is the same: for, be it joy or grieve, The way of its going still is free. Man ‘s yesterday may never be like his morrow ; Naught may digest but mutableness! † This last citation suggests to the reader that, Frankenstein ‘s beginning of doing himself experience better is to speak about his issues even though he knows it would n’t alter the fortunes he got himself into. Decision: In decision from what has been presented in this essay, it is rather clear that the writer has created a platform whereas understanding can be attributed to both characters ; Frankenstein and his animal. This is represented in Walton ‘s last missive, when he re-tells the animal ‘s words: â€Å" Still I desired love and family, and I was still spurned†¦ . the suffering and the abandoned, am an abortion, to be spurned at, and kicked, and trampled on. † And: â€Å" I have devoted my Godhead, the choice specimen of all that is worthy of love. † Her usage of composing techniques, such as affectional linguistic communication captures the reader ‘s bosom to sympathize with both characters, which makes the terminal of the narrative more interesting and thought provoking. Personally, although I can sympathize with each character, my paramount feelings thin towards the animal. This is because the animal had no pick in being given life and so be abandoned by his Godhead. How to cite Victor Frankenstein Or His Creature English Literature Essay, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Until the Church do us Part free essay sample

A look at the Catholic Churchs attitudes towards gay marriages. This four-page paper presents a discussion about why the Catholic Church refuses to sanctify gay marriages. The writer uses several sources to detail the church position on the matter and explain the reaction of the gay community regarding the churchs refusal to sanctify their unions. In recent years there has been a large change in the way homosexuals are viewed and treated in the world. It was not so long ago that gays and lesbians had to keep their preferences a secret and never reveal to the outside world that they like the same gender. However, in recent history the shift has moved away from persecution and toward acceptance. While the battle continues to rage about whether homosexuals are born or made, the world for the most part has decided it doesnt care and accepts the concept regardless of origin. We will write a custom essay sample on Until the Church do us Part or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page

Saturday, March 21, 2020

How Do I See Essays

How Do I See Essays How Do I See Essay How Do I See Essay How I would like to see myself in the next 10 years? For the next 10 years I want to see myself succeed in every aspect such as self, family/social, economic, and spiritual. I would like to see myself still in service, growing in my profession and continuous my study / schooling. So, I will improve more in the areas of my weaknesses and make use of my full potential and ability in achieving my personal goals. By that time, I am continuing practicing my profession as Psychologist and perhaps able to finished my master’s degree or even doctorate degree in Psychology. Economically, I am a financial independent and secure individual. I will no longer worry about my old age. I will travel and have fun of life after years of hard work and perseverance. My husband and I will have our own life, spend more time together and enjoys ourselves as maybe we never had before due to work demands. I have a business of my own which will also be a help in securing our other financial needs like for medicine, hospitalization and others. My family will be independent. My children already finished college and have their own profession in chosen field / career. I see myself mentoring and guiding my children in every step of their chosen career for them to succeed and support them in their failures. I maybe have a grandchild as well by then. I will be spending more time with my family, enjoying life and make most of my life servicing them. I want to have recreational gathering with my relatives and closest friends. My relationship with God is deep and will continue to seek more of Him in our life. I will have my devotions continuous and still involved myself in church services and recollections. My children will still be in church services and perhaps even grandchildren will also be part of it. Our family devotions will be taught to our grandchildren, if we have, and teach them to anchor their faith only in God. I am seeing my whole family attending altogether in every Sunday mass, special occasions and all important moments of our life.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The Myth of Er From the Republic of Plato

The Myth of Er From the Republic of Plato The Myth of Er from Platos Republic tells the story of a soldier, Er, who is thought to be dead and descends to the underworld. But when he revives he is sent back to tell humanity what awaits them in the afterlife.    Er describes an afterlife where the just are rewarded and the wicked are punished. Souls are then reborn into a new body and a new life, and the new life they choose will reflect how they have lived in their previous life and the state of their soul at death.   The Myth of Er (Jowett Translation) Well, I said, I will tell you a tale; not one of the tales which Odysseus tells to the hero Alcinous, yet this too is a tale of a hero, Er the son of Armenius, a Pamphylian by birth. He was slain in battle, and ten days afterwards, when the bodies of the dead were taken up already in a state of corruption, his body was found unaffected by decay, and carried away home to be buried. And on the twelfth day, as he was lying on the funeral pile, he returned to life and told them what he had seen in the other world. He said that when his soul left the body he went on a journey with a great company, and that they came to a mysterious place at which there were two openings in the earth; they were near together, and over against them were two other openings in the heaven above. In the intermediate space there were judges seated, who commanded the just, after they had given judgment on them and had bound their sentences in front of them, to ascend by the heavenly way on the right hand; and in like manner the unjust were bidden by them to descend by the lower way on the left hand; these also bore the symbols of their deeds, but fastened on their backs. He drew near, and they told him that he was to be the messenger who would carry the report of the other world to men, and they bade him hear and see all that was to be heard and seen in that place. Then he beheld and saw on one side the souls departing at either opening of heaven and earth when sentence had been given on them; and at the two other openings other souls, some ascending out of the earth dusty and worn with travel, some descending out of heaven clean and bright. And arriving ever and anon they seemed to have come from a long journey, and they went forth with gladness into the meadow, where they encamped as at a festival; and those who knew one another embraced and conversed, the souls which came from earth curiously enquiring about the things above, and the souls which came from heaven about the things beneath. And they told one another of what had happened by the way, those from below weeping and sorrowing at the remembrance of the things which they had endured and seen in their journey beneath the earth (now the journey lasted a thousand years), while those from above were describing heavenly delights and visions of inconceivable beauty. The story, Glaucon, would take too long to tell; but the sum was this:- He said that for every wrong which they had done to any one they suffered tenfold; or once in a hundred years- such being reckoned to be the length of mans life, and the penalty being thus paid ten times in a thousand years. If, for example, there were any who had been the cause of many deaths, or had betrayed or enslaved cities or armies, or been guilty of any other evil behavior, for each and all of their offences they received punishment ten times over, and the rewards of beneficence and justice and holiness were in the same proportion. I need hardly repeat what he said concerning young children dying almost as soon as they were born. Of piety and impiety to gods and parents, and of murderers, there were retributions other and greater far which he described. He mentioned that he was present when one of the spirits asked another, Where is Ardiaeus the Great? (Now this Ardiaeus lived a thousand years before the time of Er: he had been the tyrant of some city of Pamphylia, and had murdered his aged father and his elder brother, and was said to have committed many other abominable crimes.) The answer of the other spirit was: He comes not hither and will never come. And this, said he, was one of the dreadful sights which we ourselves witnessed. We were at the mouth of the cavern, and, having completed all our experiences, were about to reascend, when of a sudden Ardiaeus appeared and several others, most of whom were tyrants; and there were also besides the tyrants private individuals who had been great criminals: they were just, as they fancied, about to return into the upper world, but the mouth, instead of admitting them, gave a roar, whenever any of these incurable sinners or some one who had not been sufficiently punished tried to ascend; and then wild men of fiery aspect, who were standing by and heard the sound, seized and carried them off; and Ardiaeus and others they bound head and foot and hand, and threw them down and flayed them with scourges, and dragged them along the road at the side, carding them on thorns like wool, and declaring to the passers-by what were their crimes, and that they were being taken away to be cast into hell. And of all the many terrors which they had endured, he said that there was none like the terror which each of them felt at that moment, lest they should hear the voice; and when there was silence, one by one they ascended with exceeding joy. These, said Er, were the penalties and retributions, and there were blessings as great. Now when the spirits which were in the meadow had tarried seven days, on the eighth they were obliged to proceed on their journey, and, on the fourth day after, he said that they came to a place where they could see from above a line of light, straight as a column, extending right through the whole heaven and through the earth, in colour resembling the rainbow, only brighter and purer; another days journey brought them to the place, and there, in the midst of the light, they saw the ends of the chains of heaven let down from above: for this light is the belt of heaven, and holds together the circle of the universe, like the under-girders of a trireme. From these ends is extended the spindle of Necessity, on which all the revolutions turn. The shaft and hook of this spindle are made of steel, and the whorl is made partly of steel and also partly of other materials. Now the whorl is in form like the whorl used on earth; and the description of it implied that there is one large hollow whorl which is quite scooped out, and into this is fitted another lesser one, and another, and another, and four others, making eight in all, like vessels which fit into one another; the whorls show their edges on the upper side, and on their lower side all together form one continuous whorl. This is pierced by the spindle, which is driven home through the centre of the eighth. The first and outermost whorl has the rim broadest, and the seven inner whorls are narrower, in the following proportions- the sixth is next to the first in size, the fourth next to the sixth; then comes the eighth; the seventh is fifth, the fifth is sixth, the third is seventh, last and eighth comes the second. The largest (or fixed stars) is spangled, and the seventh (or sun) is brightest; the eighth (or moon) coloured by the reflected light of the seventh; the second and fifth (Saturn and Mercury) are in colour like one another, and yellower than the preceding; the third (Venus) has the whitest light; the fourth (Mars) is reddish; the sixth (Jupiter) is in whiteness second. Now the whole spindle has the same motion; but, as the whole revolves in one direction, the seven inner circles move slowly in the other, and of these the swiftest is the eighth; next in swiftness are the seventh, sixth, and fifth, which move together; third in swiftness appeared to move according to the law of this reversed motion the fourth; the third appeared fourth and the second fifth. The spindle turns on the knees of Necessity; and on the upper surface of each circle is a siren, who goes round with them, hymning a single tone or note. The eight together form one harmony; and round about, at equal intervals, there is another band, three in number, each sitting upon her throne: these are the Fates, daughters of Necessity, who are clothed in white robes and have chaplets upon their heads, Lachesis and Clotho and Atropos, who accompany with their voices the harmony of the sirens- Lachesis singing of the past, Clotho of the present, Atropos of the future; Clotho from time to time assisting with a touch of her right hand the revolution of the outer circle of the whorl or spindle, and Atropos with her left hand touching and guiding the inner ones, and Lachesis laying hold of either in turn, first with one hand and then with the other. When Er and the spirits arrived, their duty was to go at once to Lachesis; but first of all there came a prophet who arranged them in order; then he took from the knees of Lachesis lots and samples of lives, and having mounted a high pulpit, spoke as follows: Hear the word of Lachesis, the daughter of Necessity. Mortal souls, behold a new cycle of life and mortality. Your genius will not be allotted to you, but you will choose your genius; and let him who draws the first lot have the first choice, and the life which he chooses shall be his destiny. Virtue is free, and as a man honours or dishonours her he will have more or less of her; the responsibility is with the chooser- God is justified. When the Interpreter had thus spoken he scattered lots indifferently among them all, and each of them took up the lot which fell near him, all but Er himself (he was not allowed), and each as he took his lot perceived the number which he had obtained. Then the Interpreter placed on the ground before them the samples of lives; and there were many more lives than the souls present, and they were of all sorts. There were lives of every animal and of man in every condition. And there were tyrannies among them, some lasting out the tyrants life, others which broke off in the middle and came to an end in poverty and exile and beggary; and there were lives of famous men, some who were famous for their form and beauty as well as for their strength and success in games, or, again, for their birth and the qualities of their ancestors; and some who were the reverse of famous for the opposite qualities. And of women likewise; there was not, however, any definite character in them, because the soul, when choosing a new life, must of necessity become different. But there was every other quality, and the all mingled with one another, and also with elements of wealth and poverty, and disease and health; and there were mean states also. And here, my dear Glaucon, is the supreme peril of our human state; and therefore the utmost care should be taken. Let each one of us leave every other kind of knowledge and seek and follow one thing only, if peradventure he may be able to learn and may find some one who will make him able to learn and discern between good and evil, and so to choose always and everywhere the better life as he has opportunity. He should consider the bearing of all these things which have been mentioned severally and collectively upon virtue; he should know what the effect of beauty is when combined with poverty or wealth in a particular soul, and what are the good and evil consequences of noble and humble birth, of private and public station, of strength and weakness, of cleverness and dullness, and of all the natural and acquired gifts of the soul, and the operation of them when conjoined; he will then look at the nature of the soul, and from the consideration of all these qualities he will be able to determine which is the better and which is the worse; and so he will choose, giving the name of evil to the life which will make his soul more unjust, and good to the life which will make his soul more just; all else he will disregard. For we have seen and know that this is the best choice both in life and after death. A man must take with him into the world below an adamantine faith in truth and right, that there too he may be undazzled by the desire of wealth or the other allurements of evil, lest, coming upon tyrannies and similar villainies, he do irremediable wrongs to others and suffer yet worse himself; but let him know how to choose the mean and avoid the extremes on either side, as far as possible, not only in this life but in all that which is to come. For this is the way of happiness. And according to the report of the messenger from the other world this was what the prophet said at the time: Even for the last comer, if he chooses wisely and will live diligently, there is appointed a happy and not undesirable existence. Let not him who chooses first be careless, and let not the last despair. And when he had spoken, he who had the first choice came forward and in a moment chose the greatest tyranny; his mind having been darkened by folly and sensuality, he had not thought out the whole matter before he chose, and did not at first sight perceive that he was fated, among other evils, to devour his own children. But when he had time to reflect, and saw what was in the lot, he began to beat his breast and lament over his choice, forgetting the proclamation of the prophet; for, instead of throwing the blame of his misfortune on himself, he accused chance and the gods, and everything rather than himself. Now he was one of those who came from heaven, and in a former life had dwelt in a well-ordered State, but his virtue was a matter of habit only, and he had no philosophy. And it was true of others who were similarly overtaken, that the greater number of them came from heaven and therefore they had never been schooled by trial, whereas the pilgrims who came from earth having themselves suffered and seen others suffer, were not in a hurry to choose. And owing to this inexperience of theirs, and also because the lot was a chance, many of the souls exchanged a good destiny for an evil or an evil for a good. For if a man had always on his arrival in this world dedicated himself from the first to sound philosophy, and had been moderately fortunate in the number of the lot, he might, as the messenger reported, be happy here, and also his journey to another life and return to this, instead of being rough and underground, would be smooth and heavenly. Most curious, he said, was the spectacle- sad and laughable and strange; for the choice of the souls was in most cases based on their experience of a previous life. There he saw the soul which had once been Orpheus choosing the life of a swan out of enmity to the race of women, hating to be born of a woman because they had been his murderers; he beheld also the soul of Thamyras choosing the life of a nightingale; birds, on the other hand, like the swan and other musicians, wanting to be men. The soul which obtained the twentieth lot chose the life of a lion, and this was the soul of Ajax the son of Telamon, who would not be a man, remembering the injustice which was done him in the judgment about the arms. The next was Agamemnon, who took the life of an eagle, because, like Ajax, he hated human nature by reason of his sufferings. About the middle came the lot of Atalanta; she, seeing the great fame of an athlete, was unable to resist the temptation: and after her there followed the soul of Epeus the son of Panopeus passing into the nature of a woman cunning in the arts; and far away among the last who chose, the soul of the jester Thersites was putting on the form of a monkey. There came also the soul of Odysseus having yet to make a choice, and his lot happened to be the last of them all. Now the recollection of former toils had disenchanted him of ambition, and he went about for a considerable time in search of the life of a private man who had no cares; he had some difficulty in finding this, which was lying about and had been neglected by everybody else; and when he saw it, he said that he would have done the same had his lot been first instead of last, and that he was delighted to have it. And not only did men pass into animals, but I must also mention that there were animals tame and wild who changed into one another and into corresponding human natures- the good into the gentle and the evil into the savage, in all sorts of combinations. All the souls had now chosen their lives, and they went in the order of their choice to Lachesis, who sent with them the genius whom they had severally chosen, to be the guardian of their lives and the fulfiller of the choice: this genius led the souls first to Clotho, and drew them within the revolution of the spindle impelled by her hand, thus ratifying the destiny of each; and then, when they were fastened to this, carried them to Atropos, who spun the threads and made them irreversible, whence without turning round they passed beneath the throne of Necessity; and when they had all passed, they marched on in a scorching heat to the plain of Forgetfulness, which was a barren waste destitute of trees and verdure; and then towards evening they encamped by the river of Unmindfulness, whose water no vessel can hold; of this they were all obliged to drink a certain quantity, and those who were not saved by wisdom drank more than was necessary; and each one as he drank forgot all things. Now after they had gone to rest, about the middle of the night there was a thunderstorm and earthquake, and then in an instant they were driven upwards in all manner of ways to their birth, like stars shooting. He himself was hindered from drinking the water. But in what manner or by what means he returned to the body he could not say; only, in the morning, awaking suddenly, he found himself lying on the pyre. And thus, Glaucon, the tale has been saved and has not perished, and will save us if we are obedient to the word spoken; and we shall pass safely over the river of Forgetfulness and our soul will not be defiled. Wherefore my counsel is, that we hold fast ever to the heavenly way and follow after justice and virtue always, considering that the soul is immortal and able to endure every sort of good and every sort of evil. Thus shall we live dear to one another and to the gods, both while remaining here and when, like conquerors in the games who go round to gather gifts, we receive our reward. And it shall be well with us both in this life and in the pilgrimage of a thousand years which we have been describing. Some References for Platos Republic Suggestions based on: Oxford Bibliographies Online Ferrari, G. R. F. .Reeve, C. D. C. .White, Nicholas P. .Williams, Bernard. The Analogy of City and Soul in Platos Republic. The Sense of the Past: Essays in the History of Philosophy. Edited by Bernard Williams, 108-117. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006.